SR-IOV or “Single Root I/O Virtualization” is a very interesting feature that can provide virtual machines shared access to physical network cards installed in the hypervisor. This may sound a lot like what a virtual NIC and a vSwitch does, but the feature works very similarly to PCI passthrough, granting a VM direct access to the NIC hardware. In order to understand SR-IOV, it helps to understand how PCI passthrough works. Here is a quote from a post I did a few years ago:
“PCI Passthrough – or VMDirectPath I/O as VMware calls it – is not at all a new feature. It was originally introduced back in vSphere 4.0 after Intel and AMD introduced the necessary IOMMU processor extensions to make this possible. For passthrough to work, you’ll need an Intel processor supporting VT-d or an AMD processor supporting AMD-Vi as well as a motherboard that can support this feature.
In a nutshell, PCI passthrough allows you to give a virtual machine direct access to a PCI device on the host. And when I say direct, I mean direct – the guest OS communicates with the PCI device via IOMMU and the hypervisor completely ignores the card.”
SR-IOV takes PCI passthrough to the next level. Rather than granting exclusive use of the device to a single virtual machine, the device is shared or ‘partitioned’. It can be shared between multiple virtual machines, or even shared between virtual machines and the hypervisor itself. For example, a single 10Gbps NIC could be ‘passed through’ to a couple of virtual machines for direct access, and at the same time it could be attached to a vSwitch being used by other VMs with virtual NICs and vmkernel ports too. Think shared PCI passthrough.
Continue reading “An In-depth Look at SR-IOV NIC Passthrough”
Using an 8900 MTU for better VXLAN throughput and lower packet rates.
VXLAN overlay technology is part of what makes software defined networking possible. By encapsulating full frames into UDP datagrams, L2 networks can be stretched across all manners of routed topologies. This breaks down the barriers of physical networking and builds the foundation for the software defined datacenter.
VXLAN or Virtual Extensible LAN is an IETF standard documented in RFC 7348. L2 over routed topologies is made possible by encapsulating entire L2 frames into UDP datagrams. About 50 bytes of outer header data is added to every L2 frame because of this, meaning that for every frame sent on a VXLAN network, both an encapsulation and de-encapsulation task must be performed. This is usually performed by ESXi hosts in software but can sometimes be offloaded to physical network adapters as well.
In a perfect world, this would be done without any performance impact whatsoever. The reality, however, is that software defined wizardry often does have a small performance penalty associated with it. This is unavoidable, but that doesn’t mean there isn’t anything that can be done to help to minimize this cost.
If you’ve been doing some performance testing, you’ve probably noticed that VMware doesn’t post statements like “You can expect X number of Gbps on a VXLAN network”. This is because there are simply too many variables to consider. Everything from NIC type, switches, drivers, firmware, offloading features, CPU count and frequency can play a role here. All these factors must be considered. From my personal experience, I can say that there is a range – albeit a somewhat wide one – of what I’d consider normal. On a modern 10Gbps system, you can generally expect more than 4Gbps but less than 7Gbps with a 1500 MTU. If your NIC supports VXLAN offloading, this can sometimes be higher than 8Gbps. I don’t think I’ve ever seen a system achieve line-rate throughput on a VXLAN backed network with a 1500 MTU regardless of the offloading features employed.
What if we can reduce the amount of encapsulation and de-encapsulation that is so taxing on our hypervisors? Today I’m going to take an in-depth look at just this – using an 8900 MTU to reduce packet rates and increase throughput. The results may surprise you!
Continue reading “Jumbo Frames and VXLAN Performance”
Over the years, I’ve been on quite a few network performance cases and have seen many reasons for performance trouble. One that is often overlooked is the impact of CPU contention and a VM’s inability to schedule CPU time effectively.
Today, I’ll be taking a quick look at the actual impact CPU scheduling can have on network throughput.
To demonstrate, I’ll be using my dual-socket management host. As I did in my recent VMXNET3 ring buffer exhaustion post, I’ll be testing with VMs on the same host and port group to eliminate bottlenecks created by physical networking components. The VMs should be able to communicate as quickly as their compute resources will allow them.
- 2x Intel Xeon E5 2670 Processors (16 cores at 2.6GHz, 3.3GHz Turbo)
- 96GB PC3-12800R Memory
- ESXi 6.0 U3 Build 5224934
- 1x vCPU
- 1024MB RAM
- VMXNET3 Adapter (1.1.29 driver with default ring sizes)
- Debian Linux 7.4 x86 PAE
- iperf 2.0.5
The VMs I used for this test are quite small with only a single vCPU and 1GB of RAM. This was done intentionally so that CPU contention could be more easily simulated. Much higher throughput would be possible with multiple vCPUs and additional RX queues.
The CPUs in my physical host are Xeon E5 2670 processors clocked at 2.6GHz per core. Because this processor supports Intel Turbo Boost, the maximum frequency of each core will vary depending on several factors and can be as high as 3.3GHz at times. To take this into consideration, I will test with a CPU limit of 2600MHz, as well as with no limit at all to show the benefit this provides.
To measure throughput, I’ll be using a pair of Debian Linux VMs running iperf 2.0.5. One will be the sending side and the other the receiving side. I’ll be running four simultaneous threads to maximize throughput and load.
I should note that my testing is far from precise and is not being done with the usual controls and safeguards to ensure accurate results. This said, my aim isn’t to be accurate, but rather to illustrate some higher-level patterns and trends.
Continue reading “VM Network Performance and CPU Scheduling”